Tooth Implant Side Effects With Titanium
What is a dental implant?
At the simplest level, a dental implant is a surgical appliance that is placed in the gingival space present in the upper or lower jaw to support a dental prosthesis. Once the surgical site heals and the implant integrates into the bone, it acts as a replacement for the root of the lost tooth. Dental implants actually are made up of three components: a surgical piece that enters into the bone and acts as a root, an abutment that serves as a supporting structure, and the third piece acts as a crown of the lost tooth. So, the abutment is screwed on the surgical piece of metal (mostly titanium) after the site heals over the course of the months. After this, a crown is placed on the abutment that completes the entire replacement of the lost tooth.
Traditionally, the implants were of titanium only. However, now there is an availability of the non-traditional Zirconium implants, the most preferred option nowadays. Zirconium implant too has pros and cons. Well, that is a different topic.
Here, the question is, if everything was fine with the titanium ones, why there was a need for advancement? Is something wrong with the titanium implants?
Titanium is non-toxic and the body generally accepts it well. Owing to its inherent ability to osseointegrate and staying intact for several years, utilizing it as a dental implant is taken into the consideration. However, some findings from the literature suggest that titanium has the ability to induce clinically relevant hypersensitivity reactions as well as other immune dysfunctions. Some suggested side-effects are explained in brief below:
Are Dental Implants Safe
Titanium implants can be allergic to some people, because of allergy to metals. Although metal implants are strong and resistant, corrosion as a result of chemical reaction in the body can lead to metal ion toxicity. Hypersensitive reactions such as erythema, urticaria, eczema, swelling, pain, necrosis, and bone loss due to titanium dental implants are also reported.
Although they are not documented much, in some cases, the occurrence of the following side-effects is possible with the use of titanium implants:
*Rejection of an implant/implant failure/loosening of implants
*metal taste in the mouth, the sensation of electric charge on the encounter with some other metal in the mouth (these symptoms collectively are signs of galvanic toxicity)
*Aggravation or the initiation of autoimmune disease.
*rash in the oral structures
*acute/chronic inflammation of the gums.
Peri-implantitis is a type of infection that can occur at the site of implant placement. According to AAP, this condition can present the following symptoms: redness and tenderness in the gum tissue around the implant, also bleeding while brushing. This affects more to people who are smokers, or the ones suffering from diabetes and have a pre-existing condition of gum disease.
Trauma/injury to the teeth:
Injury to the teeth injures blood vessels and nerves too. Injury to the oral structures is possible during the surgical procedure. Some injuries occurred to the nerves and blood vessels during the implant placement can show signs like pain, numbness, or tingling sensation in the teeth, gums, lips, or chin.
Reports of sinus problems:
It is true that dental implant can lead to a sinus issue, however, most of the dental implants are placed successfully and does not affect the sinus adversely. If an implant placement has an error, it can create problems in the long run. An implant might intrude into the sinus cavities leading to infections.
To ensure a successful implant that can last a lifetime, depending upon your case, your dentist may want to do some procedures such as the sinus augmentation or sinus-lift or in the case of bone loss, regenerating through bone graft. So, in case your dentist does not plan such procedures as per your case and its needs, the tooth implant might move up to the sinus which can lead to the sinus infection. The Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons describes that this complication can cause headaches and pain inside the cheekbones.
Tooth Implant Side Effects Due To Titanium : Conclusion
So, the side effects resulting from the use of dental implants are extremely rare, but as they are thought to happen in some cases, there is a possibility of their occurrence. There are various measures that can be taken into consideration if one suspects themselves of being allergic to the titanium, or if someone wants to know if they are allergic or not.
Some of the possible options are:
* To consider doing a MELISA test to check for the titanium allergy.
* If a person has positive results, with respect to the allergy, in the test, they still have the option of getting an implant done, but that is through the use of a zirconium dental implant. They are made of ceramic and therefore are allergy-free. After considering its pros and cons, one may decide to opt for these ones.
* If a person has a budget constraint, or have healthy teeth present for the support, they can consider getting a dental bridge done.
Finally, to get a successful treatment done, the choice one makes, it should be made under the guidance of a dental specialist and after speculating all the factors depending upon one’s needs and requirements.